Migraines affect millions of Americans. Although many medications can treat migraines once they occur, there has yet to be to be an effective FDA-approved medication that actually prevents the onset of migraines.

On May 17th, the first medication designed to prevent migraines was approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Four more preventative migraine medications are currently in the pipeline.

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Wikimedia Commons // Timothy Ruban

Before a potential drug is tested on humans, it must first undergo animal testing. The problem is, 30 percent of drugs that are used successfully on animals are toxic to humans. Another 60 percent of drugs that that work on animals fail to have any efficacy on humans.

An untold number of drugs that could be toxic or ineffective on animals could actually be helpful to humans, but we have no way of knowing it. Humans and mice, rabbits, dogs, and primates have many things in common, but in the end, we are simply different animals. Which means drug testing on non-human animals has limited value. Fortunately, scientists have come up with a better plan — based on computers.

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In America 2017, where proper health insurance is guaranteed to almost nobody, many cities, counties and school districts are finding a way to beat the system.

Medicinal drugs are often much cheaper overseas — up to 80 percent, in some cases — so employees are getting the help they need from their employers, municipalities or even their counties, in procuring medication at these highly reduced costs.

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Type 1 diabetic Tamara Khachatoorian, 26, injects herself with insulin at the J.W.C.H. safety-net clinic in the center of skid row in downtown Los Angeles, July 30, 2007. REUTERS/Lucy Nicholson

[DIGEST: Business Insider, RT]

Diabetes affects more than 29.1 million Americans nationwide, but only three companies make insulin worldwide. Steep price hikes in recent decades have prompted accusations of price gouging. According to Dr. Mayer Davidson, a professor of medicine at the Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science in Los Angeles who has monitored insulin costs, the price of insulin now "borders on the unbelievable." Dr. Davidson noted that in 2001, the wholesale price of a monthly supply of highly concentrated insulin was $45. That same amount now costs $1,447. These observations mirror the results of a study conducted by the Journal of the American Medical Association, which found that "the mean price of insulin increased from $4.34/mL in 2002 to $12.92/mL in 2013—a 200% increase.

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