The human carnage has also already begun. Officials do not warn locals before conducting the tests. One defector who escaped North Korea in 2010, after the first two tests, said: “Prior to nuclear tests, around two tests involving only detonators take place, and locals are mobilized to dig deep holes for those tests. I personally saw corpses floating down the river with their limbs severed.”
Given that the people in Kilju drink water coming down from Mt. Mantap in Punggye-ri, locals are concerned about contamination. There are already reports of babies being born with birth defects. However, the extent of illness from the tests is unknown as officials work hard to keep accounts from Kilju from spreading. “People who boarded trains to the border with samples of soil, water and leaves from Kilju county were arrested and sent to prison camps,” said one source.
While the effects are already grim, should North Korea decide to run an atmospheric nuclear test, as they have threatened, things would get much worse. Without an underground buffer, the classic mushroom-cloud shaped test spreads a radioactive cloud to all in its path, with winds spreading the destruction even further.
A 1991 study by the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War estimated that the radiation from atmospheric testing would cause 430,000 cancer deaths by the year 2000, with more than 2.4 million people eventually dying from cancer as a result of the testing. This is so even though the last atmospheric test was done by China almost 40 years ago. The United States, Britain and the Soviet Union banned them more than 50 years ago.
“Underground tests are not environmentally friendly, but there is a vast difference between conducting them in the ground or in the atmosphere,” said Daryl Kimball, executive director of the Washington-based Arms Control Association. “If North Korea follows up on the threat to conduct a nuclear test explosion over the Pacific, that would be completely different.”