Why Are So Many Boys In This Small Town Raised As Girls? The Intersex Children of Salinas.

[DIGEST: Washington Post, BBC News]

A small and ethnically homogenized corner of the Caribbean is home to an interestingly large population of children bearing the same medical anomaly. In the Dominican Republic city of Salinas, approximately one in every ninety children have this mutation, and are born with exterior genitalia that either appear female or non-specific and ambiguous at birth. They are generally assigned a female gender, given girl’s names and raised as daughters… but when puberty sets in, something fascinating happens.

Known as Guevedoces, which is a Spanish idiom meaning “testes at 12,” these children are born with a genetic mutation that delays the development of external male sex organs. When X and Y chromosomes combine during conception and pregnancy, males usually produce the enzyme that converts testosterone into DHT, an androgen that produces the penis and testes. In these children, that enzyme doesn’t get produced until puberty. It’s a little more complex than that… but that is the basic overview.

When “Girls” Become Boys

Male children affected by this mutation, known as 5-Alpha Reductase Deficiency or 5-ARD, are born without a penis or testes. Living in a country where poverty is prevalent and medical advances such as genetic testing are not widely available, these boys are usually not identified by their families, doctors, and community as 5-ARD but rather as girls. It is not until the body is nearing puberty that the DHT kicks in, and shortly after, male physical traits appear.

By this time, however, many of these children have already begun to rebel against their assigned femininity, by eschewing “girls” dresses and toys. When the penis appears, it’s just the last piece of the puzzle. As the boys mature into adulthood, the genitals are, for the most part, fully functional. The Guevedoces are commonly able to reproduce and, with few exceptions, are heterosexual and cisgender.

This mutation, which is one of many ways a person may be classified as intersex, is extremely common in the Dominican Republic, popping up most frequently in the small village of Salinas. Documentarians speculate that it is due to a smaller genetic pool, or intermarrying, but it is as common as 1 in 90 births, with most families having at least one relative expressing the mutation.

Scientists have been studying the Guevedoces for years, following them throughout their lives as they develop from babies into adults. It was the study of this mutation that led to

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  • Phillip Woon

    evolution?

    • Normal variation in humanity. The, “usual,” rate of intersex births is from 1 to 4 in 1000. This always has been. This population of 1 in 9 is an anomaly, but only in the frequency of occurrence.

      • Judith Finch

        1 in 90. Not 1 in 9.

      • kellymitch

        If you read the article, it’s really not an “intersex” birth. The child is male, but the male organs don’t “drop” unti they hit puberty.

      • Sue Smith

        Please utilize your reading comprehension skills. The issue discussed in this article is late expression of outer sex traits. This is not the same as intersex births.

      • Kaminari Katuhstrofik

        “this always has been”

        There is literally no way to prove that. The time human beings have existed in comparison to how long people have kept records of such things may as well be an eternity.

        • Records of such things have been kept for as long as recorded history, and some Intersex syndromes are detectable from skeletal remains.

          Many of the syndromes occur in other mammals too, so they pre-date humanity. 5ARD is one of them, common in pigs in Vanuatu.

          This description from Trans Torah/Rabbi Elliot Kukla:

          Zachar/זָכָר: This term is derived from the word for a pointy sword and refers to a phallus. It is usually translated as “male” in English.

          Nekeivah/נְקֵבָה: This term is derived from the word for a crevice and probably refers to a vaginal opening. It is usually translated as “female” in English.

          Androgynos/אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס: A person who has both “male” and “female” sexual characteristics. 149 references in Mishna and Talmud (1st-8th Centuries CE); 350 in classical midrash and Jewish law codes (2nd -16th Centuries CE).

          Tumtum/ טֻומְטוּם A person whose sexual characteristics are
          indeterminate or obscured. 181 references in Mishna and Talmud; 335 in classical midrash and Jewish law codes.

          Ay’lonit/איילונית: A person who is identified as “female” at birth but develops “male” characteristics at puberty and is infertile. 80 references in Mishna and Talmud; 40 in classical midrash and Jewish law codes.

          Saris/סריס: A person who is identified as “male” at birth but develops “female” characteristics as puberty and/or is lacking a penis. A saris can be “naturally” a saris (saris hamah), or become one through human intervention (saris adam). 156 references in mishna and Talmud; 379 in
          classical midrash and Jewish law codes.

          Those with 5ARD (and 17BHSD, common in Gaza) would be classed 2000 years ago as Ay’lonit.

      • blankman

        This is a very specific condition. It is not “intersex” in general.

        BTW, the usual statistics for intersex births is about 1% since that covers things like oversized clitorises, undersized penises and the like.

    • Na_na99

      I agree. I know a lot of people might not agree, but I think the present higher prevalence of autism and homosexuality is simply the earth (or whatever) trying to fix our overpopulation issues. And if you think the earth has no influence on our evolution, just keep in mind that many ethnic traits were determined by the climate where your ancestors lived.

      • Clela

        That’s a shitty way to do it. Nothing about autism or homosexuality prevents a person from reproducing.

        • GreatRewards

          “Nothing about homosexuality prevents a person from reproducing”???

          Do you understand what HOMOsexuality is??? By its nature, there’s would be NO reproducing.

          • Rebecca Caldwell

            What a ridiculous comment. Of course homosexuals can reproduce. Just because their sexual preference is for their own sex doesn’t mean they are incapable of overcoming the barriers to reproduction.

          • Sue Smith

            And many are starting families via surrogacy.

          • Clela

            Whoa, calm down there tiger, here’s a biology lesson. Homosexuality is not sterility. Gay men and women are still physically capable of having sex and reproducing with opposite-sex partners and many do. I cultures where homosexuality is not accepted – ie most of the world – they kind of have to. Hell, if women could only get pregnant by having sex with someone they wanted to have sex with, very few people in countries where arranged marriage is a thing would have children at all. This says nothing of the developed world where, even while not being under as much pressure to have opposite-sex partners and children, many homosexual couples have biological children through the use of technology and surrogates. Just because gay couples aren’t churning them out like the Duggars (and most straight couples aren’t either) doesn’t mean they’re not having children.

          • Pons

            We have children at only slightly less the rate that straight people do. A lot of people don’t come out until after they have tried the straight life, because for most of us that was the only family model we knew. I have two sons.

          • Femmelita

            I’m HOMOsexual. I have a daughter, 3 grandsons and a grandson due in January. I’ve always known I was HOMOsexual. I’ve always wanted a child. A child. One child. I tried to be straight, ergo the conception of my daughter. I loved and do love her father, but I’m not sexually attracted to him and never was. So much for your NO reproducing theory, GreatRewards. Sometimes sex is just a physical act, like rearranging furniture. I might not like the process, but it’s worth the results.

          • Jeff Kardos Jr.

            Then what about bisexuals?

            You are an idiot!

        • Na_na99

          You don’t know much about autistic kids. It’s a lot less likely they will reproduce if they refuse to speak to anyone for more than 2 minutes or to even look at them. For the few that might have kids, the majority won’t even have one good friend.

          • Clela

            You’re superimposing your own cultural values while trying to make a biological argument. The gist of what you’re saying is that people on the autism spectrum have trouble socially, meaning they are less likely to find partners. That is simply not the case for much of the world, where reproduction is not a choice, but a given, and partners are not chosen but assigned. Yes, in our culture being autistic is an impediment to reproducing, and yes, for many severe cases it would be an issue even in places where marriages aren’t chosen, but 1) severely noncommunicative autism has not actually taken off – the rise in autism diagnoses represents a broadening in our definition of “autism” to include many social disorders and 2) in order to say something is an evolutionary mechanism, it has to function in the absence of culture.

          • Na_na99

            That’s not a “cultural value”. I have an autistic child and am in organizations where we have to force them to do things like say hi to each other and interact with each other. The reason that classrooms for autistic children tend to not change from year to year (they stay in the same class with the same students and the curriculum just goes up a year) is because the school districts are hoping if they recognize the other students, after 2 or 3 years they might actually talk to each other. My son has been in the same class for 2 years now and only speaks to one other child there (when told to do so) because their desks are next to each other. Forcing them to do a sex act would likely be impossible.

          • Clela

            Do you know any autistic adults?

          • Na_na99

            3. Two are in a group that I visit sometimes and they don’t really interact with anyone unless you almost FORCEFULLY get int their face and speak to them (I don’t do that, but the leader of the groups does). And another guy who’s independent enough to walk around the neighborhood by himself and go to the park alone. He has one friend that he plays ball with, but doesn’t really interact with anyone else. I actually know his mother and she’s always yelling at him to remove his headphones and speak to people. He does when she makes him, but when he sees me outside he doesn’t speak even if I make a point of walking over and saying hi.

          • Clela

            Welp, they call it a spectrum for a reason.

      • Dermot Kieran

        The earth is incapable of rational thought, or any kind of thought whatsoever, because it is predominately a big ball of rock.
        For this reason it cannot try to fix anything. Yes we evolved on earth, but to think that the earth makes conscious decisions on how we evolve, shows a clear lack of understanding the evolutionary process.
        Random mutations occur all the time in all species. Most of these mutations have little or no effect on the individual, but sometimes they can have negative or positive effects. Those that inherit the negative genes will be less likely to reproduce so those genes will not be passed on. Those that inherit the positive genes will be more likely to have a greater chance of surviving to reproduce so they will be better able to pass on the positive genes.
        How positive or negative the mutated genes are depends on the prevailing environment.
        Imagine a gray insect has 48 offspring 16 have a mutation that makes them a lighter shade, 16 have a nutation that makes them makes them darker.& the rest have no mutation so they look like their parent. They live on a white chalky island so the lighter shaded insects blend in better & all survive to adulthood & reproduce. Only half the non-mutated insects survive because they don’t blend in as well as the white ones & only 4 of the dark ones survive & this continues for several generations until there are millions of light insects thousands of gray ones & only hundreds of dark ones. Then there is a fire on the island turning all the chalk black. giving the dark insects the better survival advantage. This is how evolution works..

        • Na_na99

          I stand by my opinion.

          • Dermot Kieran

            If you wish to choose your own personal fiction over established fact, that is your choice & I fully support your right to make that choice, But you will still be wrong in doing so. Opinion is not fact it is just personal belief & just because someone believes something, it does not make them right.

    • Rebecca Caldwell

      Evolution doesn’t cause random changes. Natural selection causes long-term change to a species by fostering the traits in the species that make them most fit for survival through the reproductive years. I can’t see how that would apply here.

      • utopia27

        evolution _does_ proceed through random changes. Then it kills off all the ones that limit reproduction – sometimes even differentially small declines in reproduction. But nature doesn’t _design_ the changes.

        • Rebecca Caldwell

          Are you trying to argue with my point? You’re really just agreeing with it. Evolution doesn’t CAUSE random changes. Long-term changes that come about are specific to the survival of the species in whatever environment the species is in. Whether or not it works utilizing random mutations has nothing to do with what I said.

      • Tore Bolhøj

        “Evolution” is the process where species adapt to their environment, and compete with other species. Mutations, on the other hand, are random. Most ordinary human beings have a few (but harmless) mutations somewhere in our huge genome. Cancer is a mutation too… so “evolution” is a useful process, but most mutations just lead to no effect or a disease.

      • s0nicfreak

        Actually, in a species where adults might kill infants based on gender (which happens with humans), making it so the adults do not know the actual gender of offspring until the offspring reaches puberty certainly seems like a way to ensure the offspring survives until puberty (the reproductive years).

  • The author makes an assumption that children born intersex and subjected to genital surgery at birth are seemingly always raised as girls. This is not true. Very basic measurements are taken, overall appearance is considered, and even the wishes of parents are considered and many intersex babies are, “made into,” and raised as boys. It is a product of our patriarchal culture that we hear of the, “tragedy of boys raised as girls,” but never of the girls raised as boys. There are no clear numbers, but anecdotal evidence indicates a number of male-to-female transsexual women were actually born intersex, their genital surgery concealed from them and only revealed when they prepare for genital surgery and the scar tissue from that almost-at-birth forced masculinization is discovered.

    • SteveS

      …everything is ‘patriarchy’ to you. No, they’re making the observation as to a particular genetic disorder where the male organs drop down during puberty, and they are not female. This is nothing like what you’re talking about, at all.

    • Na_na99

      The author is speaking (in the entire article) of the Dominican Republic in particular.

    • GreatRewards

      Luccia… try READING the article.

      • ThaddeusQuackenbush

        Luccia is a social justice warrior. SJWs don’t need to *read*, they just need to *feel*. And what they feel is that the white male patriarchy is responsible for all the ills of the world.

        • Rai Goldin

          Listen- one ignorant non-reader doesn’t make the patriarchy irrelevant. It just makes the poster irrelevant- and remember even a broken clock is right at least twice a day.

          • Dermot Kieran

            Not if it’s a 24 hour clock 😀

          • ThaddeusQuackenbush

            And not if it’s a digital clock, which is never right. Sorry, but criticism of SJWs is not wrong just because you don’t want to hear it.

        • bobobloblaw

          Actually I think they’re a troll trying to make fun of sjw. Look up poes law.

    • Kristin Lamb

      The author did not make that assumption. This is about a particular population with a specific genetic condition, not transgender or intersex. Some, but not all, of these children are genotypically male but phenotypically female or ambiguous and don’t begin to display male reproductive organs until puberty.

      • 5ARD – 5alpha reductase deficiency – is just one of many Intersex syndromes.

        These children transition from female looking at birth to male looking later – unless there’s medical intervention to stop that.

        So technically they definitely are Intersex, technically definitely not transsexual, whether they’re transgender or not is a matter of opinion.

        The change can either cause or cure Gender Dysphoria, the primary symptom of Transsexuality. So even though not Transsexual, they may as well be, and are treated in US society as if they are.

    • Isabelle

      Actually what she did say was this.
      “often, the medical community chooses a sex based on the most viable traits presented. Often this results in infants with internal testes being given an orchidectomy, genital reconstruction of a vagina and labia, and an assignment of female. This decision is often based on the much simpler method of creating a vagina, versus the much more delicate and complex surgical effort of creating a functional penis.”

    • Janice D’Amico

      That was true in the past , but now but has been changing after discovering huge mistakes were made.

  • c bemis

    so… they know this so why are they raising them as girls?

    • Jerseygirl

      Because they don’t know this until they reach puberty. Didn’t you read where they are so poor that genetic tests aren’t done? They literally think they have a girl until a penis develops at puberty.

      • s0nicfreak

        With this being so common, you’d think they’d switch to a more gender-neutral way of raising children.

        • Rai Goldin

          Or maybe they’re just fine with it and don’t need some arrogant outsider judging their choices.

          • s0nicfreak

            Seeing as how the kids resist being pushed into “girly” things I’d say they’re not just fine with it. But thanks for judging ME for my opinion bro.

      • c bemis

        hello, didn’t you read that they are born with distinctive genitals? they are not vaginas that grow into penii

        • Judy Adkins Hill

          so “appear female or non-specific and ambiguous” is “distinctive”? what part of “female” shows that the infant in intersex?

          • c bemis

            you’re missing my point. their society MUST know about intersex and what genetalia looks like in a boy and a girl baby. You don’t have to know WHAT the reason is (ie: genetic testing) to understand trends. If it’s as prevalent as this article says, then they should know not to raise the kids as female… because they know what’s coming, possibly.

            a vagina is pretty obvious. ever change a poopy diaper?

      • c bemis

        ” born with exterior genitalia that either appear female or non-specific and ambiguous at birth”

  • Jerseygirl

    It’s not evolution. It’s a genetic mutation caused by having access to a very small gene pool (in this case at least). If the people of this area were separated and moved throughout the country in a couple generations there would be relatively few incidents of this happening.

    • jamilleChristman

      Though they say it is due to inbreeding and having a small gene pool, 1 in 90 is still pretty large for a mutation of something specific even in such a small population. I wonder if there is something environmental affecting phenotype.

    • Janice D’Amico

      Evolution is mutations.

      • April_Fool_79

        Evolution is mutations that provide some benefit to the being. Unless there is some reason why young boys would be killed off by the village, or abused in some way, but teens not, there is no benefit that this mutation provides.

        • NoMoreFalseGods

          Evolution is mutation, not all are benificial, there is no plan behind it. The usefull ones give advantages to the holder and he or she may have a better chance to survive and breed thus passing it on.

          • Neurotic Knight

            Evolution implies gradual change of an organism over time via mutations due to natural selection. So this is not evolution, no more than red hair or blue eyes would constitute such. They are not selected for it and what this is called is founder effect.

          • NoMoreFalseGods

            Founder effect is a bottleneck population that can differ greatly from their parents and causes evolution of a new species.

        • Tommy Johansen

          in theory there could be some, like protection of genetilia (harder to suffer damage to them, when they haven’t even begun developing yet), perhaps girls are better nourished than boys, for one reason or another, thus allowing the men with these mutations to gain an advantage later on in life.
          Maybe these particular boys are more sought after as partners, in this particular society.

          there are so many ways in which a mutation can be a benefit the individual, especially once you think outside the scope of base survival, and apply social structure on top.

        • Mathi Bear

          Girl-babies do tend to be slightly more durable than boy babies when all other factors are accounted for. Perhaps there was a small positive adaptive benefit to the boys who had this trait.

          • NoMoreFalseGods

            All babies basically start as a girl model, boys have to go through a lot of changes. This makes the survivability of females higher to start. Lack of testosterone in the pregnant mother could account for the lack of external genitalia until the boy starts to produce his own.

        • Kerri Jordyn

          Evolution does not require that a mutation be beneficial, only that it is not detrimental prior to the passing on of genetic information.

        • bobobloblaw

          Maybe these boys socalized as girls are more understanding of women when they grow up and get a better chance to reproduce. Or it could be neutral, but evolution doesn’t mean improvement.

          Like how being gay can help pass on genes because if the gay person doesn’t have kids then he can help out with the neices and nephews and maybe even send them to private school.

        • Janice D’Amico

          What in the world are you talking about?

    • Femmelita

      Red hair occurs in approximately 1% – 2% of the human population, which is roughly the same as the occurrence of intersex children in Salinas. Guess we redheads are all inbred, Jerseygirl, as you somewhat infer.

      I think there are many more instances of intersex children born in all parts of the world than are generally acknowledged, due to doctors “recommending” parents consent to heteronormative surgery. As adults, most people born intersex who have had this surgery state that they would have rather remained as they were born.

      • l jess

        most redheads have some Irish in them – small pool DNA wise

  • kanageddaamen

    I find the most fascinating aspect of this is this line: “By this time, however, many of these children have already begun to rebel against their assigned femininity, by eschewing “girls” dresses and toys”

    Now the most prevalent and vocal opinion of feminists is that there are no “boy” or “girl” clothes and that these are thrust upon children by the patriarchy perpetuating gender stereotypes in order to maintain male dominance of women.

    If that is the case, what possible explanation does feminism have for why are these individuals, raised as girls, thinking they are girls, with those “girl” toys and clothes pressed on them throughout the 12 years of their life, naturally rebelling and gravitating to “boys” things?

    Could it possibly be that there are things considered “boy” clothes and toys, and things that are considered “girl” clothes and toys because boys and girls gravitate to those respective things naturally, and NOT that there is some nebulous, poorly define, unsubstantiated, constantly in flux, conspiracy that is driving these things?

    • NoMoreFalseGods

      The DR is mostly Catholic, they like their rolls defined. It said “Most” not all toss the girly stuff by puberty, sounds like some have no problem with the kind of toys or clothes they use even after the changes. Not all boys like trucks and not all girls like dolls, why is this so hard for you to understand? If you won’t buy your boy a doll or your girl a truck then it’s society not the kids that is the problem.

      • kanageddaamen

        Hey, don’t project your nonsense on me. I have no problem with buying a boy a doll and a girl a truck.

        I never said all shed it, it is naturally going to be up to the individual child. However the fact that MOST are doing before they develop their genitals and discover their true sex, indicates biological motivation to that rejection of femininity, not societal.

        The point being that, while we naturally should be allowing children to gravitate towards whatever drives them internally, even if we did that most boys would gravitate to mostly boy things and most girls would gravitate to mostly girl things, as there are BIOLOGICAL not SOCIAL influence that drive most core behavior

        • NoMoreFalseGods

          Fair enough but it is almost always preferable to be male socially, no need to get rude. Girls are what they think they have so they raise them accordingly. In a Catholic country that has negative conotations. Being able to grow away from that would be prefered if your sex started to change. Feminists have a point about marketing toys and clothes to kids, it stands out more in the west because we are progessive. In the second and third world gender rolls are more clearly defined and inforced by religion and traditionalists. These children are treated with kindness because it’s a common problem there.No mention of how the children who do not change sex are treated if they dress or play outside their rolls. Boys and girls play differently sometimes, no matter the toy. If this truely didn’t matter why are they even mentioning it?

    • Jeff Kardos Jr.

      But the article doesn’t make light of those that want to remain feminine.

  • Wade Jordan

    1 in 90 is not extremely common.

  • tenorlord

    Rush Limbaugh was caught at the airport with large amounts of viagra when he returned from the Dominican Republic, a place known for it’s child sex trade.

    • s0nicfreak

      Good for him

  • Janice D’Amico

    We know so little abut the mind and body, yet think we know so much when we have nothing but a negative opinion. WE have not learned to just shut up and let the kids be and treat them with respect. Even listening to them seems too hard for the hard core haters.

  • Maggie Hartley

    Believe it or not there is a home in Long Island NY that cares for children born with both sexes. My friends Mom used to work there. It is not that rare evidently and has been there sine the 50’s. Jamie Lee Curtis has been rumored to have this mutation for years.

    • SoapArmageddon

      I wonder at your need to include scurrilous rumours about Jamie Lee Curtis. How is that relevant to the topic at hand?

  • Rai Goldin

    I wouldn’t date that guy either.

  • Jeff Kardos Jr.

    “By this time, however, many of these
    children have already begun to rebel against their assigned femininity,
    by eschewing “girls” dresses and toys”

    But what about those that are comfortable with femininity?

    • Dermot Kieran

      They were lucky that their gender identity matched their surgically assigned sex.
      Hopefully they will be able to live long happy lives, without having to endure the hate & prejudice that many intersex & trans people are subjected to.

  • Mister Smith

    It’s 1 in 90 for that one village, not the entire human population. So rare is probably a good description.

  • AF

    There’s an error here: intersex persons aren’t the same as those who are nonbinary. An intersex person’s physical sex is one not traditionally considered male or female. A nonbinary person’s gender is not dictated by their physical sex, and as such falls under the heading of being trans, rather than intersex. Both are absolutely valid identities.

  • Nancy Klevgard

    Whatever. It happens, OK?

  • Gregory Judas

    A lot of people are getting defensive about their beliefs that gender is a social construct. It’s okay to be wrong. Look at the facts. These boys are being mistaken for the wrong sex and being raised as females. Even before they discover their true sex, they are demanding to be raised as boys. They aren’t just demanding to switch genders. They’re trying to be the gender that they’re supposed to be, as it’s tied to their sex. They just don’t know that the gender they want to be is their actual sex.

  • MidnightRose

    They need to start reproducing with people outside their village…everyone there is probably related three different ways.

  • ThaddeusQuackenbush

    No, men’s rights activists are misogynistic pigs, with many, many deep-seated issues against women. But just because that’s what they are doesn’t mean that “feminists” and social justice warriors aren’t misandrist. Under the guise of “equality,” SJWs want to squash any kind of free thought and criticism of their own movement.

  • Joseph Fulks

    I know it’s a dyed in the wool belief that humans have only two sexes.If you are born with a penis you are male and if you weren’t you are female.Some people around the world believe there is such a thing as a third sex or even more.Weird way of thinking right?What if it was true.We don’t have a problem knowing that some animals and fish like the clown fish can start out as one sex and can end up being another.So why is it set in stone to think we human animals are only male and female?

    • chynna

      Actually there are 4 sexes. Males, Females, Hermaphrodites and Gynandromorphs.

      It is not a ‘belief’ either, it is proven science. Hermaphrodites are not common, but gynandromorphs are very rare. Gynandromorphs occur more frequently in other species.

      • Joseph Fulks

        We both know science can prove something and people’s belief wont accept it(cough creationist).I was talking about belief of most people that humans only have two sexes.They believe someone must be one or the other.They try to force people to fit in one of two boxes and it must be weird if someone doesn’t.To the point of causing sever mental pain.I am thinking of the story of the twin that had his penis burned off and the doctor told the parents that he was young enough they should be able to raise him as a girl.He later found out he wasn’t a girl and it led to him committing suicide.

  • Sandwich

    Are these children born with a Y chromosome? If so couldn’t a blood test could determine if a “girl” could actually be a “boy”?

  • s0nicfreak

    And nice people call others assholes?

    • Rai Goldin

      Who EVER said I was “nice?” Good lord, don’t make assumptions.

Why Are So Many Boys In This Small Town Raised As Girls? The Intersex Children of Salinas.

by Haley Pollock time to read: 5 min
94